GHEE – A 6000+ Years Known Immunity Booster of India.. Now Infused with Herbal Zinc A Known Anti Viral!
Researched and Developed By Prithu Nath on April 15th 2020….
INTRODUCING HERBAL ZINC INFUSED GHEE FOR BOOSTING IMMUNITY!
Ghrita (ghee) was produced in ancient India as far back as 1500 BC (Achaya, 1997). Ancient sanskrit literature describes ghee as the food fit for Gods and a commodity of enormous value. In ancient India, ghee was the preferred cooking medium. It was considered pure and was felt to confer purity to foods cooked with it (Achaya, 1997). Ayurveda has traditionally considered ghee to be the healthiest source of edible fat, with many beneficial properties.
Ghee’s chemistry holds the secret to its health benefits. Ghee is made from a combination of saturated (~65%) and unsaturated (~5%) fat and monounsaturated fat (~25%). Its saturated fat is primarily made from the easy-to-digest short chain fatty acids (89%). SCFA IS KNOWN TO BOOST IMMUNITY ! Ghee is also rich in butyric acid, a fatty acid with anti-viral properties, which is believed to prevent cancers and tumours.Ghee being a natural source for Butyric acid, which is a short-chain fatty acid that helps and boosts killer T cells production that help in strengthening the body’s immune system. The presence of butyric acid also helps in the prevention of cell damage in the colon and intestines.
Both saturated and unsaturated fats are required in a healthy diet. Cow ghee contains nearly 5% less saturated fats than buffalo ghee. It also contains carotenoids which imparts yellow colour to the product. On the contrary, buffalo ghee lacks carotenoids but contains biliverdin and bilirubin responsible for its greenish tint (Achaya, 1997). Ghee contains fat soluble vitamins A, D, E and K, small amounts of essential fatty acids, arachidonic acid and linoleic acid. Ghee is a source of beta carotene and vitamins A, D, E, and K. Beta carotene and vitamin E are vital antioxidants. Vitamin A is naturally present in ghee, which is lacking in other edible oils.
In India, ghee is considered as a sacred article and used in religious rites (Rajorhia, 1993). Ghee is heavily utilized in Ayurveda for numerous medical applications, including the treatment of allergy, skin, and respiratory diseases. Proper digestion, absorption, and delivery to a target organ system are crucial in obtaining the maximum benefit from any therapeutic formulation; the lipophilic action of ghee facilitates transportation of molecules to a target organ and final delivery inside the cell since the cell membrane also contains lipid (Sharma, 1990).
Many Ayurvedic preparations are made by cooking herbs into ghee. Ghee carries the therapeutic properties of herbs to all the body’s tissues. It is an excellent anupana (vehicle) for transporting herbs to the deeper tissue layers of the body (Lad, 1998). Ghee has been recognized as Indian medicine in Ayurveda. Ghee is used as medicine by itself or as media for extraction, absorption and assimilation of any medicine. It is used as medicine when qualities of lipids and fats are required for treatment. It is used as solvent or base for extraction of herbomineral active principles. It is used as media for absorption of lipid soluble vitamins or other active principles in the food or medicine. It is also used as a carrier media in certain medicines to facilitate the transport of active principles across the cell membrane, which is permeable only to lipid molecules, e.g., the blood-brain barrier where transport of ‘medhya’ (which promote intellect and memory) medicines is possible if the drug is processed in lipid media (Prasanna, 2007). Ayurveda has identified ghee as a Madhur-Rasa i.e.,
can be used since birth itself and in some parts of India ghee and honey mixture is given to newborn babies (Pandya, 1996).
HEALTH BENEFITS OF GHEE
The health benefits of ghee can be categorized as, those that are obtained from consuming ghee as a food and those that are obtained by using ghee as a medicine. Ghee is a carrier of fat-soluble vitamins, A, D, E and K, which our body needs in very small quantities but cannot make for itself. These vitamins perform many essential functions. Similarly, the essential
fatty acids, which cannot be synthesized in our body, are also supplied by ghee. Ghee is good for growth of all the seven dhatus in the body (body fluids, blood, flesh, fat, bones, marrow and semen).
FORTIFICATION OF HERBS IN DAIRY AND FOOD PRODUCTS
Since pre-historical times, herbs and spices have been used not just as food flavourings, but also for its medicinal and antiseptic properties as well as for their preservative action that is derived from their antimicrobial and antioxidant constituents (Almeida-Doria & Regitano-Darce, 2000). From time immemorial herb extracts (include all type of natural sources) has been used for preserving poultry, meat, beef, fish, lard, soyabean oil, etc. (Almeida-Doria & Regitano-Darce, 2000; Tang et al., 2001; Ahn et al., 2002; Jamora & Rhee, 2002) but their use in dairy products is scarce.
Herbal Ghee In the Ayurvedic system of medicine, ghee is used extensively for therapeutic purposes (Heyn, 1993). In Ayurveda, ghee is considered as an effective “carrier” of the lipid-soluble portion of herbs and spices to the various parts of the body. Ghee has been recognized as a medicine in Ayurveda. However a generalized method of preparation is described in detail in Sharangdhar Samhita, a classical Ayurvedic text. There are about 55-60 types of herbal ghee reported in Ayurvedic literature and they are used for treatment for various diseases. Ghee is a wonderful, nourishing food and a great carrier for herbs. Incorporating herbs in ghee is an easy way to get herbs into our everyday diet. Herbal ghee is always prepared with selective fortification with herbs, so as to acquire all the required fat-soluble therapeutical components of herbs (Saxena, 1996). Different herbal ghee with their main applications is listed in Table 2.3 (Pandya and Kanawjia, 2002).
SECTION FOR THE TECHNICALLY ORIENTED.. ON HOW SHORT CHAIN FATTY ACID WORK….
Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA)
CLA is a mixture of positional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid with conjugated unsaturation. These fatty acids with conjugated unsaturation are not normal constituents of cow and buffalo’s diet. CLA are known to be formed during rumen fermentation, fermentation of milk, and heating of milk fat in presence of milk proteins (Aneja et al., 1990). Milk fat is the richest natural source of CLA with reported values ranging from 2.4 to
28.1 mg/g (Riel, 1963). Dairy products are the main source of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in the human diet (Kelsey et al., 2003). Buffalo milk has been shown to contain a significantly higher amount of rumenic acid (the main conjugated linoleic acid) than cow milks. This may be the most important advantage of buffalo milk, as CLA isomers are regarded as anticarcinogenic, antiatherogenic, antiobesity and antidiabetic components (Ménard et al., 2010). CLAs reportedly suppress carcinogens, inhibiting proliferation of leukemia and cancers of the colon, prostate, ovaries, and breast. The other reported beneficial health effects of CLA as supported
by biomedical studies with animal models are antiatherogenic effects, altered nutrient partitioning, improved lipid metabolism, antidiabetic action (type II diabetes), immunity enhancement, and improved bone mineralisation (Sabikhi, 2007). The exact mechanism underlying anti-cancer role of CLA is still being investigated but some of the effects are
believed to be due to the antioxidant properties of CLA (Parodi, 1996).
Sphingomyelin is a phospholipid preferentially located in the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane of most mammalian cells. In bovine milk, phospholipids account for 0.2 to 1.0 g/100g of total lipids, where they are associated with the milk fat globule membrane. Sphingomyelin represents about one-third of total milk phospholipids (Parodi, 1996). With dairy products being the primary source of uptake (Vesper et al., 1999), sphingolipids and their metabolites are highly bioactive molecules with multiple beneficial effect on human health, e.g., cancer inhibition, antimicrobial and immunomodulatory activities, as well as inhibition of cholesterol adsorption (Vesper et al., 1999; Possemiers et al., 2005; Akalin et al., 2006). It plays an important role in transmembrane signal transduction and cell regulation (Ballou et al., 1996, McBain, 1997).
Butyric acid is a lower chain fatty acid present in milk of ruminants. In bovine milk, about one third of milk triglycerides contain one molecule of butyric acid, its amount in cow and buffalo ghee varies between 10-12 per cent. Butyric acid is a well known modulator of gene
function and may also play a role in cancer prevention (German, 1999). At the molecular level, it promotes histone acetylation that may benefit DNA repair, suppresses the expression of various proto-oncogenes, and stimulates expression of tumor suppressor genes (Parodi, 1996
and Parodi, 1997). It acts as anticarcinogen by regulating cell growth and inducing cell differentiation in a wide variety of neoplastic cell lines (Prasad, 1980 and Merrill, 1991). It inhibits cell growth and induces differentiation in a wide spectrum of cancer cell lines including
those of the breast and colon, where butyric acid can induce apoptosis and may prevent cancer.
Anticarcinogens from Ghee
The various milk fat components, such as CLA, sphingomyelin, butyric acid, ether lipids, β-carotene and vitamin A and D, have anticarcinogenic potential (Jahereis et al., 1999; Parodi, 1999; Alkalin and Tokusoglu, 2003; Khanal and Olson, 2004).
Comprising Primarily of Short Chain Fatty Acids Ghee as per modern research on SCFA’s have suppressive effects on respiratory allergic diseases (106). SCFAs condition intestinal epithelial cells to make them more readily respond to bacterial products (40). SCFAs can enter cells through diffusion or carrier-mediated transport and thus do not necessarily go through cell surface receptors.
This function is important to prepare epithelial cells for mounting optimal innate immune responses to invading pathogens and commensal bacteria, and therefore helps prevent chronic intestinal inflammatory responses to microbes and their products.
The gut microbial metabolites SCFAs profoundly regulate T cell differentiation in the body. Because these metabolites are produced at high levels in the gut, the T cells in the intestine and gut-associated lymphoid tissues are an important cell target for regulation by SCFAs. SCFAs can be transported into the blood and have the potential to regulate T cell activity in systemic tissue sites as well. Beyond T cells, SCFAs regulate the function and phenotype of a number of immunologically important cell types such as epithelial cells, neutrophils, and antigen presenting cells. While the anti-inflammatory activity of SCFAs has been emphasized, SCFAs can also promote the generation of effector T cells and enhance gut barrier function and innate immunity. All of these effects of SCFAs are important to maintain a healthy immune system and to prevent inflammatory diseases. More studies are required to sort out the detailed mechanism of SCFA-mediated regulation of T cells and other immune cells.
A mounting body of evidence indicates that the microbial metabolites short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) have profound effects on T cells and directly and indirectly regulate their differentiation. We review the current status of our understanding of SCFA functions in regulation of peripheral T cell activity and discuss their impact on tissue inflammation. T cells are central players in the regulation of adaptive immunity and immune tolerance. In the periphery, T cell differentiation for maturation and effector function is regulated by a number of factors. Various factors such as antigens, co-stimulation signals, and cytokines regulate T cell differentiation into functionally specialized effector and regulatory T cells. Other factors such as nutrients, micronutrients, nuclear hormones and microbial products provide important environmental cues for T cell differentiation.
SCFAs, also called volatile fatty acids because of their relatively more volatile nature compared to longer fatty acids, have been studied for more than a century (50,51). SCFAs are physiologically important in the intestine as they regulate ion absorption and gut motility. Because SCFAs are absorbed first into colonic epithelial cells and can be metabolized in these cells, they profoundly affect the basic biology of intestinal epithelial cells. SCFAs, particularly C4, are used as the major energy source for colonic epithelial cells and regulate their gene expression, proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis (52). For example, SCFAs promote the production of mucin and gastrointestinal peptide (e.g. LL-37) (53), molecules important for gut barrier function.
Other cell types are also regulated by SCFAs. SCFAs induce the chemotaxis of neutrophils via activation of GPR43 (58,59) and regulate neutrophil degranulation (63,64). SCFAs also regulate macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) (65,66). SCFAs suppresses NF-kB and the production of inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6 and TNF-α but increases IL-10 secretion from macrophages (67).
According to Ayurveda, ghee promotes longevity and protects the body from various diseases (Tirtha, 1998). It increases the digestive fire (agni) and improves absorption and assimilation. It nourishes the subtle essence of all the body’s tissues (dhatus). It improves memory and strengthens the brain and nervous system. It lubricates the connective tissues, thereby rendering